Hmong/Mong Comparative Dictionary by N. Oetker

L.A.M. The Light Amidst the Mong

Protestant Christian Outreach

Not for profit established 1978 U.S.

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Below was Compiled Over a 15 year period


Protestant Missionary Norman Oetker

Exhaustive Handwritten Complete

Hmong and Mong Dictionaries.

Comparisons of the Hmong/Mong Dialectal Dictionaries by Lyman (Mong Green), and Heimbach (Hmong White) and comparing typography of Dr. Smalley’s work.

Scanned and uploaded in August 2013, December 2014. 

Saint Charles Missouri, US.

As a Protestant Christian Missionary working with the MongNjua located in northwest Thailand’s Himalayan mountains. Living in a small MongNjua village named Naipapaek.

My family was the first Christian Missionaries to this village. Those in this village had never heard the name of Jesus, nor had most seen a white person. There were no roads, electric, water, nothing, except their huts. We also dressed in Mong clothing and lived in a dirt floor hut as others.

A very primitive living group, if you could imagine stepping back in time one hundred years, that would describe the methods used and live by.

It took us two days of trekking up to this mountain village. No other missionaries had gone or would go.  

This was an area called the “Golden Triangle.”  

Opium drug producing source, communists and bandits controlled this area. We were told by O.M.F. (Overseas Missionary Fellowship from Europe) missionaries, that worked with other Mong who did not live in the Golden Triangle Area, repeatedly, that if we went there or even tried, that the Mong Njua, communist, or common bandits would murder us all.

Additionally, the northern Thai people of Thailand located at the base of the mountains would tell us stories of how they believed that the Mong people had short tails about six inches long. The Mong were not viewed in Thai society as being fully human.

Today, 2014 this is no longer the prevalent thought.

Our Protestant Family Mission Group L.A.M. brought to the village, and to the only Mong man that was able to slowly and I mean very slowly living in the village, of only 260 men women and children. The first rough draft, of only a part of the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament.

Today this is a Christian village.

The already, Internationally recognized Romanized script that was used, for phonetic transcription of this Tibetan based language, used the final word-letter as a tone indicator.

Use of a Romanized English letters scripts, for phonetic transcriptions of languages, were in use before they ever came to Asia, and more particularly to South East Asia.

The idea that in the 1950’s that Catholic missionaries developed this ideal are miss-informed.

Romanization, that is using Roman letters as a technique used for describing a language group,  were in widespread use well before this time period.

The International Romanization techniques established usage-it was this model,- was the base from which other missionaries based their work from in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand, in the 1940’s, 50’s, and beyond.

Repeating, the only difference is the usage of a final letter to established tone. Instead of using already established tonal indicators markers.

And, as I have stressed in the past, and re-affirm this year 2014, most forcibly, that this whole-scale, and total misuse of this transcription style, has to lead to the spiritual demise of the Mong.

By first, the Catholic missionaries, as well as the O.M.F. Protestants missionaries of this language style a simulation.

Their created Romanized Bible final translation style began, and continued, in a slovenly, slipshod, careless disregard, for the consequential damage to the already established languages within each nation involved.

This is an inexcusable arrogance, that happens continually. I’ve witnessed this over and over for the past 40 years, especially by the well-funded American and European Protestant Christian Missionaries enter into an area of any nation.

This is the consequence of just such arrogance, perpetrated to Mong, who are a poor, illiterate, remote mountain dwellers of the highlands, despised generally by the low-landers of the countries involved.

Note: this same discrimination takes place wherever the MongNjua settle during their nomadic travels.

The Hmong(White Mong) of Laos, the southeast Asian refugees who help the American C.I.A. during the Viet Nam era wars. They face the same or similar difficulties today in America.

This Romanized developed script, known commonly, as the R.P. A. (Romanized Popular Alphabet) and the Bible created thereafter, has done more damage to the Mong spiritually, than any other cause.

On the international scene, this misuse of the English script continues their isolation. Unable to speak and understand fluently current everyday English, this continues to set back they’re a simulation into local cities here in America.

And hinders all other societies from each of the Nations where they have migrated into.

This R.P.A. devised lingua given to the un-suspecting Mong from Mongolia and China.

Is now known in SouthEast Asia by the Mong people located in the mountainous regions of Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma (Myanmar).

The R.P.A. used has been a critical error, an error, that has been passed down to this day.  With its confusion to all, they are forced to use this ill-conceived ideal. I’ve written on this very destructive language type used extensively.

 Our family had five different missionary tours to this area. Also, of the oldest of my seven children, a son and two daughters: former missionaries Luke, Naomi, and Rachel Oetker, were able to finish the construction of a small missionary training house in the Mong village of Naipapaek, Thailand.

I soon realized in 1977, that there was no Mong written language, nor Bible or Dictionaries.

As a Protestant Christian Missionary, the primary evangelistic outreach is no more than the going where the Lord directs. And then, to share a simple story from a small beautiful storybook of God’s Plan for Humanity. 

A beautiful storybook, that one would gladly share with their own children, a book that has a very special delivery person, for when it’s unwrapped and opened, one is overwhelmed with such narratives expressing the love, dedication, and commitment of one person’s solidarity with His Father, that being our loving Lord and Savior.  

The Book, the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament, is truly a love interest of God toward His creation.

These Truth’s are told by Christ, the Apostles, and Evangelists within the Protestant Christian New Testament.

This New Testament Book is the only Book in existence, that is Divinely Inspired by God, for man’s daily life.

This statement, that ALL other RELIGIONS are false and misleading, is very difficult for those who are involved with them. These ancient religions are firmly established within their religious societies.

Just as Jesus, born of a Jewish woman, a woman conceived by the Holy Spirit of God, stated to the then established religions of His day, of whom did want to hear His message.

They, rejected the words of Jesus when Jesus said that He is the only way of Spiritual Salvation.

Today, it’s the same way with all the false denominational groups. The Roman Catholics refuse to accept anything that does agree with their man created ancient traditions. The Roman Catholic demand and receive from all their followers a BLIND, SUPERSTITIOUS, OBEDIENCE.  

The great majority of the Protestant denominations disregard of one having a personal born again spiritual experience. A life turned to God, and then, their obedience to the teachings of Christ, the Apostles, and Evangelists writings, found only in the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament. Protestants have accepted, that as long as one has a general willingness to be tolerant of others religions, then you’re acceptable to them as Christian, or so it seems. Are there exceptions? Yes, I suppose, though it is a well-hidden secret.

The Protestant Christian Bible Old and New Testament, Plainly state that God gives freely to all people, the knowledge of His requirements. His requirements for an understanding of how to obtain Spiritual Salvation. 

The Way, to man’s restoration, for a man again to reconcile with God, through God’s Plan of Redemption, which is for all people of the world. 

The knowledge of God’s requirements is called the Gospel, the Good News Message. 

Giving every person on the earth the opportunity to decide to be saved. Deciding to accept or reject God’s Redemption plan through Jesus’s atonement. 

To accept Jesus’s Salvation Plan, along with one’s personal Repentance, repentance is the turning to Jesus, the Apostles, and Evangelists writings as their new spiritually born again way of daily life. 

Repentance is believing and acting daily in the words of Christ, the Apostles, and Evangelists, as found in the only Divine Inspirational Words from God to man within the Protestant Christian New Testament only.

There are no other divine writings for all to have a loving relationship with one’s Heavenly Creator.

Having the opportunity through the New Testament Gospel Good News Message of being Spiritually Born Again. 

Each and every person that wants to be truly a follower of Jesus, their final earthly decision that they can make are the surrendering of their wills and minds.

And, to then decide, to be a disciple of Jesus to the world. For this is the ultimate fruit of REPENTANCE!

As a Christian, one is saved by Grace and justified by Jesus’s death wherein Jesus Atoned for man’s Sins. 

A man has to agree to repent and agree to follow the teachings of Jesus, the Apostles and the Evangelists, as found written within the Protestant Christian New Testament only no other. 

I have had hundreds upon hundreds to say that all they have to do to become a Christian is to be sorry for their sins, and to asked Jesus to forgive them, then ask Jesus to come into their heart and believe that He did, then they are told they are a Christian. 

There are so many people who think they are a Christian, and yet, they do not read the Bible, nor do they understand the basic New Testament Truth’s. 

They have never repented and made the commitment to follow only these teaching’s of Christ, the Apostles and Evangelists writings, found only in the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament. Instead, do what they think is right in their own eyes. Making God the way they want Him to be like.

Most, and I mean 98 to 99 percent who say they are Christians, are no different than the good law abiding unsaved persons. 

To be a Christian you must Believe and Repent! 

You can’t be a Christian unless you do both at the same time! 

The people who say they are Christians today, for the most part, there are exceptions, do not believe that in order to be saved that they have to follow the teachings of Jesus, the Apostles, and Evangelists, as recorded within our current Protestant Christian New Testament. 

There are other supposed Christians who confess they are sinners and can never stop sinning.

Yet, other supposed Christians think they can pick and choose as to what they want to believe from any source that they determine fits what they want to believe, within their socially acceptable circles, or of their man created theological ideas based denominations. 

These circles can be from poorest to the riches. 

The everyday run of the mill declared Christians do exactly what they want to do. And rejecting Christ’s, the Apostles, and Evangelist’s specific teachings, instructions, and commands, that is, if they even know what they are.

Many supposed declared American Christians think, that they have some sort of “United States Constitutional Right” to believe in anything, or in anyway that they so desire. 

The Christian today can have faith in the God-man Jesus Atonement, in His Resurrection, His Ascension, for Jesus ascended into Heaven, and is now at the right hand of the Father, interceding on the behalf of all His followers, His disciples here on earth. 

As He was resurrected from death, hell, and the grave, we likewise, are raised from death to life physically, spiritually and symbolically by being publicly water baptize: in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

And, as we also, symbolically, take part in Communion, where Jesus’s Body and Blood are symbolically represented by Bread and Wine. (The bread and wine are NOT the actual body and blood of Jesus.)

The Bread and Wine are symbolic, as Jesus states Himself within the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament in Luke 22:19 KJV “And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.”

In becoming a Christian, once that decision is made of accepting Salvation, and the turning of one’s mind and will. The turning of one’s mind and will willfully, and most deliberately, making those commitments to daily practicing Christ’s truths. Then these TWO

1. Understanding Christ’s Salvation Plan by Grace, Justification and

2. Repentance 

Then together and jointly, and most decidedly, these are the FIRST and ONLY way that one can be Spiritually Born Again, to become a New Creature in Christ Jesus! Being supernaturally transformed NOT by your works of trying to be a Christian, or trying to follow every command in the New Testament or of some religious traditional formulas, such as confirmation or infant baptism, or of any other religious denomination’s traditions. 

A person is redeemed only through Jesus’s Salvation Plan. That decision is decided only by that person and God, through God the Father’s Grace.

Grace is the Father’s Power, Strength, Love, and Favor towards a man and woman young or old. 

Man can do absolutely nothing in gaining favor with God, only by God the Father condescending to man, by His Grace ONLY,  can man even become aware of his need to be saved, to be regenerated, to be spiritually Born Again.

Only by the Father’s Grace can one become aware of Christ Jesus and one’s need for Spiritual Salvation.

Christ Jesus’s teachings are only understood correctly and in there entirety, for man today, within the Protestant Christian New Testament only. 

All other religions, or traditions, either instituted by a Protestant Denominations or other religions, are in error. In error, if they do not agree with the only Divine and Inspired Word from God to man, which is found only in the Protestant Christian Bible New Testament. 


These other religions and their traditions are in error, are false, and misleading, and are spiritually meaningless.

They are only a per functionary requirement of some sort of supposed religious duty. 

As a Protestant Christian Missionary, the New Testament teachings are very plain as written by the Apostles, regarding ministers of the Gospel working and supporting themselves and their families, as one goes about winning the lost to Christ. I mentioned this because of my five family mission tours wasn’t by me going to churches and asking for money.

Entering into full-time ministry, If AFTER, and I mean AFTER, one has surrendered YOUR will to God, to be His servant. God will then, and only then, put it in your mind and heart where one is to go, thereby fulfilling God’s Will through His servants.

Not by us choosing beforehand where we would like to go or to be part of something. 

These plain Salvation Truth’s of Jesus, the Apostles, and Evangelists needed to be spoken and made clear, to these remote Himalayan mountain dwellers called the Mong. 

And that being done, today this once animist controlled village is now predominately Christian. 

God has sent many Protestant Christian Missionaries into this village through the years, we were the first, and then to the few other missionaries. We, all the Protestant Christian Missionaries all agree, to God be all the Glory, for it’s only by the Father’s Grace that we are able to do anything, for His glorious Kingdom.  

Jesus’s Truths of Creation, Original Sin, Salvation’s Promise, Birth of the Promised Savior, Atonement, Resurrection, and Ascension thereby allowing the descendant of the Holy Spirit to this World.

The Holy Spirit brings God the Father’s Grace, and Salvation message to all the people of the world.

….(Note: Not to some preordained election of some being preordained by God to go to Heaven while others are going to Hell, a complete false and demonic doctrine, commonly referred to as “Once Saved Always Saved….”

God’s Grace is for everyone!

His never-ending supply of Grace given abundantly.

His Power, His Strength, His Love, and Favor towards all of humanity. 

God’s Grace has helped me continuously since 1974 when I became a Christian. Through the years, His Holy Spirit has helped me in the compilation this handwritten and exhaustive comparative work of the only two known dictionaries of these two dialects of the ten or so spoken dialects within the Miao languages.

This is a one of it’s kind. I personally wanted to read and see, to understand what and how the differences of these dialects are exactly expressed in my learning of the spiritual meanings of the Animist Religion of the Mong. 

I began to see through the writings of these linguist/missionaries,


Eventually, in Bible translation, they translate the Mong words for their gods into the Christian Mong Bible, which leads the Mong to believe that their gods are the same as the Christian New Testament and that the only difference is that they didn’t know their gods had a son named Jesus. 

In Laos, a Dr. Smalley followed the Catholic linguists interpretations of the Mong lingual. 

Missionary Heimbach followed Smalley’s reasonings which were in error, however, in fairness, Smalley’s work was only of a very small group of the Mong. 

Heimbach’s error was the continuation of the development of an English Romanized RPA. the script that was NOT created by Smalley.

The English Romanized script, the RPA., had been used previously, in other tonal languages in the region.

Smalley only copied the RPA.’s existing pattern, which had been developed decades earlier.

This English Romanized RPA. the script, which tried to combined the Mong dialect spoken by the Mong Njua in Thailand,  as the same that the Hmong Dhlaw spoke in Laos was incorrect.

Again, in fairness, these linguists had no idea of the future, as for as the Laotian Hmong, coming to the US. as Southeast Asian Refugees; however, they had ample opportunity to work with the Lao as well as the Thai governments. And to teach and translate everything into the national establish language dialects.

The missionary did not want to exert that much energy, instead of in direct violation of established national language standards of each country schools policies, they chose their methods.

Why? Because of one lazy principle, and that was that it was easier for them to use their English typewriters. This action can only be described as it was actually done. A lazy, slovenly disgrace, to the host countries that allow them to enter their country, to begin with. 

Heimbach’s English looking Romanized RPA. the script had corrupted the correct pronunciation of the common English Alphabet, within the minds of the first Mong as well as those that adhered to this incorrect system when arriving in the United States as part of the SouthEast Asian Refugees and thereafter. 

Who was taught in part in Laos, and later as refugees in the Thai (Thailand) refugee camps before coming to the U.S. with some, not only Hmong to other parts of the world. 

The Mong Language.

Why? Was this English script used as the first based written language introduction?

With an illiterate hill-tribe people of Laos? 

And not introducing the fully published spoken language symbols used in the schools of Laos?

That was established for generations of the Lao language? Used in the educating their youth through the National Established Lao Language?

The national language would help the hill-tribe populations, in assimilating into all aspects of the Lao social, economic, and political aspirations?

This answer is easily recognizable when one understands the Mong and their basic inherited paternalistic animist society structures, of which I write about in other articles.

As my family, with my former wife, and the first daughter went to the mission field, the first of five times.

Going then, and later, with all of our subsequent children. As a faith-based independent Protestant Christian Outreach work in the late 70’s, and when I say “faith-based” what is meant is that we did not during the five different family missions trips averaging between 6 to 12 months each, go into churches and ask for money.

If God calls, He, God will provide.

That is my understanding of the scriptures.

Christian people worked and trusted God for the means and ways to fulfill what God had called one to do.

In the late 70’s there was no written Mong language at that time.

The Mong language is a multi-tonal language. 

Heimbach’s one great error was that on his own, he decided to copy the already decades old established RPA. English script, when other local dialects and scripts were available and were in use by the mountain schools in the Laos language.

The National Lao Language was ignored by Heimbach.

And later, Heimbach and his adherents continued this debacle of the English script into the Nation of Thailand ignoring and refusing to use the Thai hill-tribe language specially designed for all hill-tribe people of Thailand, as well as the National Language of Thailand.

Heimbach singularly decided to use a completely foreign script to all of Southeast Asia, not only did he introduced the English script falsely, he changes every letter meaning to correspond to the Mong Tonal language. 

Heimbach later wrote of his reasoning for this slothful action, “that it was for the ease of the missionary to use their English typewriters.”

 Untold were the many un-necessary hardships that were imposed on the Hmong from Laos, by them trying to unlearn something when they tried to learn the English language correctly when in Thailand’s refugee camps and later in the US.

This Heimbach copied method of the RPA. a script, in my opinion, was morally and ethically incorrect to have been used and taught to begin with.

Heimbach’s dictionary uses the English alphabet characters in trying to pronounce the Mong tonal language.

The Miao languages have from five to nine different tonal sounding word endings within their tonally, different languages. 

All foreign linguists working within a foreign country generally have the full support and cooperation of their local, that is, the nationals of the country in which they are working governing bodies.

I personally believe and have experienced this to be so, at least I know it to be within Southeast Asia. 

The European and American Protestant Organizations come into third world countries generally, with financial incentives for the host countries, such as hospital and schools buildings, training facilities to be built, dentistry, food, clothing distribution etc.

As a foreign Protestant Christian Missionary, I’ve observed first hand over and over the disregard generally that a Protestant Organizations can bring to a third world country’s mid-level governing authorities.

By that I mean, the local people are generally less literate and have had little to none exposure to modern world conveniences.

Or have experienced within national or global commerce.  

The European and American dollar can buy so much more within these third world countries.

And, I’m sad to say, that is what many Protestant Organizations bring to a country (money and it’s power) and in return, many of the Protestant Organizations, (there are exceptions, though very few)  have much control and sway over things affecting their proselytizing. 

As a Protestant Christian Missionary, I summit below the following handwritten pages that were where done over a 4 to 5 year period, and in many parts of the US. and Southeast Asia. There were times that I was unable to buy a pack of loose-leaf paper, yet, in the end, it was completed.

May all the Truly Born Again Christians continue to go forth, and to share to a lost and confused world, the way of Salvation through the Christ Jesus. 

Only by, and through God’s Mercies, and God’s Divine and never-ending Power, Strength, Love and Favor.

ALL Praise and Glory to HIM and HIM ALONE!

Norman Oetker

L.A.M.  (The Light Amidst the Mong)

Protestant Christian Missionary,

Saint Charles Missouri, August 2013, December 2014.

N. Oetker’s Exhaustive Handwritten Comparative Hmong and Mong Dictionaries.

Comparisons of the Hmong/Mong Dialectal Dictionaries by Lyman (Mong Green), and Heimbach (Hmong White) and comparing typography of Dr. Smalley’s work.

Displayed Below 614 Handwritten Pages.

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