Pahawh Hmong, and R.P.A. (Romanized Popular Alphabet) Hmong Bible Script

Pahawh Hmong, and R.P.A. (Romanized Popular Alphabet) Hmong Bible Script


HmongNews.Org, “The Missionary”, Hmong UCLE, Hmong Pahawh, Hmong RPA, Nyob Zoo, NaPaPaek Thailand, MaeHongSon, Bible Protestant Christian Old and New Testament Commands of Jesus, Intentions, English Class, Fresno California, Hmong Dictionary by N. Oetker, L.A.M. inc. 1978 Christian-Outreach, Mae Hongson Thailand, Myanmar Burma, Naipapat Thailand, Norman and Selma Oetker 2013 Protestant Christian Missionaries, Reynosa Mexico, Selma's Pulpit, St. Charles Missouri US., Trinity,


March 2015

…continuing to work on this page….and will be uploading shortly the truth of the supposed origins and creation of the White Hmong Pahawh. Below is the correct understanding of the origins of the White Hmong R.P.A.


March 2014 upload, with revisions March 2015

I began to see multiple errors, through their writings, and subsequent dictionary publications. These erroneous statements and practices to date, have not been addressed by either the I.P.A. (International Phonetics Association) or of one of the leading Bible translation providers, the American Bible Society.

Of the later, I submitted multiple, upon multiple biblical and spiritual implied errors, of these linguists/ missionaries that were corrupting biblical as well as basic linguistic practices back in the late 1970’s.


An ALL TO COMMON ERROR in Bible Translations!


Eventually in Bible translation, they, the White Hmong translated the White Hmong words for their gods into their supposed White Hmong Bible.

Leading the White Hmong in Laos to believe, that their animists appeasing gods are the same as the Christian New Testament God, the Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit, these three persons of God are inseparable, equal in power, and all resigning within this spiritual substance that we call God. 

The White Hmong from Laos.

( The large population of the Southeast Asian Refugees that are now in the United States.)

These White Hmong believe now because of Heimbach’s methods, that the only difference is that they didn’t know their gods, had a son named Jesus. 

In Laos, Smalley followed the Catholic linguists interpretations of the White Hmong lingual. 

Heimbach followed Smalley’s 1950’s reasonings.

Heimbach’s numerous and plentiful errors, however, in fairness, Smalley’s work was only of a very small group of the White Mong from Laos. 

Heimbach’s gross errors were the continuations of the developments of an English Romanized RPA. script.

The R.P.A. that was NOT created  

by Smalley, and neither by Heimbach.

The English Romanized Tonal scripts the R.P.A., had been used previously, in many other tonal languages, in various regions of the world.

Smalley only copied the R.P.A.’s existing patterns which had been developed decades earlier.

Heimbach’s English Romanized R.P.A. script tried substituting – and therefore committing a GROSS error- an English letter in the final position, for an already existing tonal marker.

To furthermore, confuse, obfuscate Heimbach continued his muddled, confused, overcomplicated renderings when he tried to combine two dialects as one.

That is trying to say to the academia that Mong Njua spoken in Thailand,  and the Hmong Dhlaw spoke in Laos were the same exact language with only some very minor differences. 

This un-corroborated assumption has been thoroughly disproven.

Again, these missionary linguists actions have lead to the demise of the core truths of  He, Jesus, the Apostles, and Evangelists, as found in our only divine and correct spiritual understanding, the Protestant Christian Bible Old and New Testaments.

These arrogant linguists, I use the term arrogant without reservation, these missionaries, as well as those today, financed by others, for the most part, live in SouthEast Asia a lifestyle for above the normal person of the country served, because of the currency exchange rate. As a note, of the five family missionary tours I’ve completed to Thailand, the first tour the exchange rate to the U.S. dollar was 54 to 1 U.S. Dollar, today the rate is 34 to 1.

The Laotian government has it own national language alphabet, the American Missionaries, as well as European, refused to use it, it is the same in Thailand.

The American Missionaries, as well as others, have much power and persuasion through the sums of money coming into the countries.

Heimbach had written his method with a total disregard to the host country’s desires and own laws.

Through which they were to bring to the local people, in their language, and Gospel of Jesus’ Salvation.

Heimbach and others instead refused to teach the White Hmong, the national language alphabet, keeping these people ignorant of their own countries laws and customs.

Heimbach instead, continued to foster his en-comprehensible foreign alphabet for


for the ease of the American missionaries to use their typewriters.

Some of these lazy, self-indulgent, supposed missionaries had no idea of the future, as for as the Laotian White Hmong, who were basically illiterate hill tribesman living in the north. Who were the primary opium growers, smuggling their criminal products through the Himalayan mountain southern ranges that extended into Vietnam, Thailand, and China.

That those White Hmong would come to the US. as Southeast Asian Refugees.

These White Hmong were these producers, and it’s this reason alone, that the United States Central Intelligence Agency made contact with these criminal tribesmen.

The Laotion White Hmong were continually evading the Laotian government and it’s laws WELL BEFORE before the Vietnam conflict.

It was the American C.I.A. working with these knowledgeable White Hmong Opium Growers because they, the White Hmong, knew all of the secret ways of not be detected by Laotian, or of any other International forces coming through the Himalayan mountain ranges of Northern Laos.  

In these regards, it was the supply routes for the N.V.A. (North Vietnamese Army) and the Viet Cong, that were going through Laos with supplies for their forces in Vietnam.

I ‘ve written in further detail on this subject; however, suffice to say, it must be said here clearly, the reason the White Hmong wanted the United States Military in Laos was that those in Laos White Hmong leaderships wanted to overthrow the Laotian government.

And for certain White Hmong Leaders to become rulers over Laos.

Thus establishing, and fulfilling an ancient belief held by the Miaos, Mong, Hmong, Mew people of the entire region.

Spanning from southern Mongolian, and to all of the western mountainous regions of China, eastern Burma/Myanmar, northern Laos, Thailand mountains, and into Vietnam’s mountains contingent with the Himalayan Southern Ranges. 

Heimbach’s English looking Romanized R.P.A. script, had corrupted the correct pronunciation of the common English Alphabet.

Heimbach’s disregard created a confused, befuddled, atmosphere for English understanding.

Heimbach and the subsequent teachers of this method created incalculable mental anxiety, and harm to the mental acquisition of language, for an ordinary person in learning.

Created this, the


Planted now, was the Biblical error within the minds of the first White Hmong, by using Heimbach’s. R.P.A.

Continued as well by those that adhered to this incorrect system when arriving in the United States, as part of the South East Asian Refugees, and all thereafter under this type of false R.P.A. tutelage. 

The R.P.A. being taught in part, in Laos, and later as refugees, in the Thai (Thailand) refugee camps, before coming to the U.S.,  along with others, not only Hmong, going to other parts of the world. 

The White Hmong language, why was this English script used as the first based written language introduction? with an illiterate hill-tribe people of Laos? 

And not introducing the fully published spoken language used in the schools of Laos?

The established for generations Lao language used in the educating their youth through the National Established Lao Language?

The national language would help the hill-tribe populations in assimilating in all aspects of the Lao social, economic, and political aspirations?

This answer is easily recognizable when one understands the Mong and their basic inherited paternalistic animist society structures, of which I write about in other articles.

As my family, with former wife and first daughter, went to the mission field, the first of five times.

Going as a faith-based independent Protestant Christian Outreach work in the late 70’s, and when I say “faith-based” what is meant is that we did not during the five different family missions trips averaging between 6 to 12 months each,

WE DID NOT  go into churches and ask for money.

If God calls, He God will provide, that is my understanding of the scriptures.

People worked and trusted God for the means and ways to fulfill what God has called one to do.

In the late 70’s there was no written Mong language at that time.

The Mong language is a multi-tonal language. 

Heimbach’s one great error was that on his own, he decided to copy the already decades old established R.P.A. English script, with minor tonal substitutions when other local dialects and scripts were available and were in use by the mountain schools in the Laos language.

The National Lao Language was ignored by Heimbach.

And later, Heimbach and his adherents continued this debacle of the English script into the Nation of Thailand ignoring and refusing to use the Thai hill-tribe language specially designed for all hill-tribe people of Thailand, as well as the National Language of Thailand.

Heimbach singularly decided to use a completely foreign script to all of Southeast Asia, not only did he introduced the English script falsely, he changes every letter meaning to correspond to what he perceived as a White Hmong Language Tone, for this English alphabet usage of their language. 

Heimbach later wrote as I stated above, of his reasoning for this slothful action, “that it was for the ease of the American and European missionaries to use their English typewriters.”

 Untold were the many un-necessary hardships that were imposed on the White Hmong from Laos, by them trying to unlearn something, when they tried to learn the English language correctly when in Thailand’s refugee camps and later in the U.S. This, in turn, created Older White Hmong communities unable to communicate with their American English speaking children, the White Hmong language used by the youth in the U.S. today is only, I would estimate, it’s understandably heard by the Mong of China at about 20 percent.

This Heimbach copied method of the R.P.A. script, in my opinion, was morally and ethically incorrect to have been used and taught to begin with.

Heimbach’s dictionary uses the English alphabet characters in trying to pronounce the Mong tonal language.

The Miao languages have from five to nine different tonal sounding word endings within their tonally different languages. 

All foreign linguists working within a foreign country generally have the full support and cooperation of their local, that is, the nationals of the country in which they are working governing bodies.

I personally believe and have experienced this to be so, at least I know it to be within Southeast Asia. 

The European and American Protestant Organizations come into third world countries generally, with financial incentives for the host countries, such as hospital and schools buildings, training facilities to be built, dentistry, food, clothing distribution etc.

As a foreign Protestant Christian Missionary, I’ve observed first hand over and over the disregard generally that a Protestant Organizations can bring to a third world country’s mid-level governing authorities.

In that, the local people are generally less literate and have had little to none exposure to modern world conveniences.

Or have experienced within business’s or in global commerce generally. 

The European and American dollar can buy so much more within these third world countries.

And, I’m sad to say, that is what many Protestant Organizations bring to a country (money and it’s power) and in return, many of the Protestant Organizations, (there are exceptions, though very few)  have much control and sway over things affecting their proselytizing. 

As a Protestant Christian Missionary, I submit  the following handwritten pages that were where done over a 4 to 5 year period, and in many parts of the US. and Southeast Asia.

There were times that I was unable to buy a pack of loose-leaf paper, yet, in the end, it was completed.

May all the Truly Born Again Christians continue to go forth, and to share to a lost and confused world, the way of Salvation through the Christ Jesus. 

Only by, and through God’s Mercies, and God’s Divine and never-ending Power, Strength, Love and Favor.

ALL Praise and Glory to HIM and HIM ALONE!

Norman Oetker

L.A.M.  (The Light Amidst the Mong)

Protestant Christian Missionary,

Saint Charles Missouri, August 2013 revision March 2015

N. Oetker’s Exhaustive Handwritten Comparative Hmong and Mong Dictionaries.

Comparisons of the Hmong/Mong Dialectal Dictionaries by Lyman (Mong Green), and Heimbach (Hmong White) and comparing typography of Dr. Smalley’s work.

Displayed  Chapter 1 Mong /Hmong Dictionaries

614 Handwritten Pages.

Click to read N. Oetker’s Exhaustive Handwritten Comparative

Hmong and Mong Dictionaries.

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