The Articles by Thomas Hartwell Horne that I’ve decided to scan and copy are for those who are serious and would like to read first hand of this particular learned man’s assimilation of existing works, with his abundance of reference materials, in the support of his stated views of historical profs of the authenticity and genuineness of the Protestant Bible Holy Scriptures.
Giving factual historical documentation of the Protestant Bible Old Covenant, as well as the Protestant Bible New Covenant that Jesus had stated. Jesus’ New Covenant, that Jesus alone brought to the whole world, as recorded at his Last Supper with the Apostles.
I’ve copied scanned text from works that had been copied from Horne’s 1800 century writings. The footnotes are as they have been scanned from these previously scanned documents, the pages seem out of numerical order, this was do to the scanning process.
I’ve copied a brief portion of Horne’s introduction on the Protestant Christian Bible Old Testament.
(The Old Testament was among other historical facts, explaining and recording the First Covenant, the First Testament, established by God with only Abraham, and to all his descendants. Thereby, and through Abraham’s lineage God’s First Covenant extenda to all the nations of the world. The First Covenant, given in the Old Testament, by God, “WAS NOT LIMITED ONLY TO THE HEBREW JEWISH NATION! God’s Covenant was to all the nations of the world, as stated by God to Abraham, and is plainly taught in the Mosaic Laws additionally.)
Finally, due to the labor intensiveness of footnote cross checking of the scanned pages, and more specifically, the abundance of periods, commas, additional marks, and an assortment of abbreviated references; additionally, Latin, Greek, and in some cases Hebrew scripts are in the references quoted.
It has been labor intensives for me. I know when I read issues of this importance, and the life changing gravity of their implication and application, the cross referencing s are vital. For this completes and accurate picture of the different scholarly works involved, and can be explored as for as one desires, for the authenticity and genuineness of the author assessment of his data and subsequent written opinions. I alone am held accountable for this transcription of Horne’ writings on this very valuable and eternal subject.
Missionary Norman Oetker Protestant Christian Missionary.
May 2015, Saint Charles Missouri U.S.
Saint Charles Missouri, U.S.,
Copied by Protestant Missionary N. Oetker
Following: From Thomas Hartwell Horne works are brief copied portions of his original text information, including references and footnotes.
His Volume 1 (of his IV Volume Set) establishes the authenticity and genuineness of the Protestant Christian Bible Old and New Testaments. As we have it today 2015.
OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY
Thomas Hartwell Horne
FREE DOWNLOAD BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM
If you, the reader, are serious and want to read of the Historical Genuineness, and Authenticity, of the Protestant Christian Bible Old and New Testaments, then please read in part the following written and gathered by Thomas Hartwell Horne.
Reverend Horne’s Life, (From Internet source.)
He was born in London and educated at Christ’s Hospital until he was 15 when his father died and he had to work.
He then became a clerk to a barrister, and used his spare time to write.
Horne was initially affiliated with the Wesleyans but later joined the Church of England. He was admitted to holy orders without the usual preliminaries, because of his published work.
In 1833 he obtained a benefice(a permanent Church appointment) in London and a prebend (the part of the revenues of a cathedral or collegiate church paid as a clergyman’s salary) in St Paul’s Cathedral. Horne was a librarian in 1814 at the Surrey Institution, which was dissolved in 1823.
In 1824 he joined the staff at the British Museum and was senior assistant in the printed books department there until 1860. He prepared a new system for cataloguing books at the museum but it was never used there.
In 1833, He did use it, however, to reclassify the extensive library of Frances Mary Richardson Currer in 1833. note: estimate over twenty thousand (20,000) books.
Horne wrote more than forty works in bibliography, Bible commentaries, and Christian apologetics. One of his best known works is the three-volume Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures that was published in 1818. This work enjoyed widespread circulation in Britain and North America and went through at least eleven editions during the nineteenth century.
It was reissued in North America in 1970. Horne also produced a “Tree Full of Bible Lore,” a tree-shaped text of statistics on the Bible, in which he counted the number of books, chapters, verses, words, and even letters. He ended this tree with “It [the Bible] contains knowledge, wisdom, holiness and love.”
He wrote and Introduction to the Study of Bibliography (1814), and various other works.
ON THE GENUINENESS AND AUTHENTICITY
OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
From: page 35, Volume 1 of a five volume set by Thomas Hartwell Horne named “Introduction to the Scriptures.”
Introductory page states
“Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures.”
BAKER BOOK HOUSE Grand Rapids Michigan Reprint 1970. U.S.
SECTION I. ON THE GENUINENESS AND AUTHENTICITY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
1. The Hebrew Scriptures why termed the Old Testament.
11. The Great importance of the question, whether the Books contained in the Old Testament are genuine or spurious.
Genuineness and Authenticity defined.
111. Genuineness of the Canonical Books of the Old Testament.
(1) (see footnote included below) External Proofs of the Genuineness of the Old Testament.
(1.) The manner in which these Books have been transmitted to us.
(2.) The Paucity of Books extant when they were written.
(3.) The Testimony of the Jews.
(4.) A particular Tribe was set apart to preserve these Writings.
(5.) Quotations of them by ancient Jews.
(6.) The evidence of ancient Versions. (2)(see footnote included below)
Internal Evidence. -(1.) (see footnote included below)
(1) language, style, and manner of writing.
(2.) Circumstantial of the Narratives contained in the Old Testament.
1V. Proofs of the genuineness and authenticity of the Pentateuch in particular.
1. From the language in which it is written.
2. From the nature of the Mosaic law.
3. From the united historical testimony of Jews and Gentiles.
4. From the contents of the Pentateuch.
V. Objections to the authenticity of the Pentateuch considered and refuted.
I. The Hebrew Scriptures why termed the Old Testament. The books, which the Hebrews, Israelites, or Jews have long venerated as divine, are usually called ” The Old Testament,” in order to distinguish them from those sacred books, which contain the doctrines, precepts, and promises of the Christian religion, and which are distinguished by the appellation of ” The New Testament.”
The appellation of ” Testament” is derived from 2 Corinthians 3:6,4,14, in which place the words (LATIN WORD) and (LATIN WORD) are by the old Latin translators rendered antiquum testamentum and novum testamentum, old and new testament, instead of antiquum foedus and novum feedus, the old and new covenant ; for although the Greek word Sabmu signifies both testament and covenant, yet it uniformly corresponds with the Hebrew word Berith, which constantly signifies a covenant.
The term ” old covenant,” used by St. Paul in 2 Corinthians 3:14, does not denote the entire collection of writings which we term the Bible, but those ancient institutions, promises, threatenings, and, in short, the whole of the Mosaic dispensation, related in the Pentateuch, and in the writings of the prophets ; and which in process of time were, by a metonymy, (figure of speech, use one word for another) transferred to the books themselves.
Thus we find mention made of the book of the covenant in Exodus 24:7 and in the apocryphal book of 1 Maccabees 1, 570, and after the example of the Apostle, the same mode of designating the sacred writings obtained among the first Christians, from whom it has been transmitted to modern times.
Great Importance of the Question, whether the Books contained in the Old Testament are genuine or spurious.
If the books contained in the Old Testament were not written by those authors to whom they are ascribed, or nearly in those ages to which they are supposed to belong, but, on the contrary, were written by authors who lived at a much later period・that is, if they were superstitious or spurious, the history which is related in them would by no means be worthy of the great credit that is given to it; the design which pervades these books would have been an imposition-
FOOTNOTES are from Volume 1, of a five volume set by Thomas Hartwell Horne named “Introduction to the Scriptures.” Introductory page states, “Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures.” BAKER BOOK HOUSE Grand Rapids Michigan, Reprint 1970. U.S. (note: There are differences in page numbering from the original, the page numbering used by me here is that of the downloadable form from books.google.com.)
FOOTNOTE: p-28, 1 col
Besides the authorities above cited, the author has been largely in debted for the materials of this Chapter to the Collection of Boyle Lectures, in 3 vols, folio, (London, 1739); particularly to the Lectures of Bishops Williams and Leng, and of Dr. Samuel Clarke ; to Dr. Leland’s ” Advantage and Necessity of the Christian Revelation shown from the State of Religion in the ancient Heathen World,” 3d edition, in 2 vols. 8vo. (Glasgow and London, 1819) ; and to the same author’s masterly ” View of the Deistical Writers.” The reader, who may not be able to consult these valuable works, will find a well written ” Comparative View of Natural and Revealed Religion,” in the second volume of “Christian Essays,” by the Reverned C. Willis. London, 1817, 8vo.,
2 Jerome, Comment, in Malachi 2. Op. torn. iii. p. 1816. * Dr. Lardner has collected several passages from early Christian writers who thus metonymy, (figue of speech, use one word for another) use the word “Testament.” Works, Bra. voL Ti. p. 9. 4to. vol. iii. p. 140.
CONTINUATION OF TEXT PAGE 28.
upon a later age, and the accomplishment of that design in the New Testament would be altogether an extraordinary and singular occurrence; the miracles therein recorded to have been anciently performed would have been the invention of a later age, or natural events would have been metamorphosed into miracles ; the prophecies, asserted to be contained in those books, would nave been invented after the historical facts which are narrated in them ; and, lastly, Jesus Christ and his apostles would have approved and recommended the works of impostors.
Hence it is evident of what great importance the question is, whether these books are genuine, that is, whether they were written by the persons whose names they bear, and (especially if the authors be unknown) about that time which is assigned to them, or at which they profess to have been written ; and also, whether they are authentic ; that is, whether they relate matters of fact as they really happened, and in consequences possess authority.
For, a book may be genuine that is not authentic; a book may be authentic that is not genuine ; and many are both genuine and authentic, which are not inspired.
The first epistle of Clement, Bishop of Rome, is genuine, having been written by the author whose name it bears ; but it possesses no authority on which we can found any doctrines.
The history of Sir Charles Grandison is genuine, being indeed written by Richardson, the author whose name it bears ; but it is not authentic, being a mere effort of that ingenious writer’s invention in the production of fictions.
Again, the Account of Lord Anson’s Voyages is an authentic book, the information being supplied by Lord Anson himself to the author; but it is not genuine, for the real author was Benjamin Robbins, the mathematician, and not Walters, whose name is appended to it.
Hayley’s Memoirs of the Life of Cowper are both genuine and authentic ; they were written by Mr. Hayley, and the information they contain was deduced from the best authority. -1(see footnote) But the poems, which bear the name of Rowley, are neither genuine nor authentic, not having been written by him, nor by any one who lived in this fifteenth century, but being wholly the productions of the unhappy youth Chatterton, who lived three hundred years afterwards.
Genuineness of the Canonical Books of the Old Testament. The word Canon (from the Greek KANflN) signifies not only a catalogue or list, but also a law or rule.
This term has been appropriated ever since the fourth century to the catalogue of writings which are admitted by Jews and Christians as a divine rule of faith and manners. (2)
FOOTNOTE page 28
Dr O. Gregory’s Letters on the Evidences, Ac. of the Christian Religion, vol. I. p. 84. 2d edit. ｫ Suiceri Thesaurus, tom, ii, p 40. voce Xaver.
Part 2 NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY
Thomas Hartwell Horne
ON THE GENUINENESS AND AUTHENTICITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
LGeneral title of the New Testament. —
II.Account of its Canon. —
III.Genuineness of the books of the New Testament. —
IV.Their authenticity proved,
1. From the impossibility of forgery ;
2. From external, or historical evidence, afforded by ancient Jewish, Heathen, and Christian testimonies in their favour, and also by ancient versions of them in different languages : — and
3. From internal evidence, furnished by,
(1.) The character of the writers. (2.) The language and style of the New Testament, and, (3.) The minute circumstantiality of the narra-
FOOTNOTE: col. 1 p-38
1 Witsius, in his Miscellaneous Sacra, p. 126., says the clause “before there reigned any king over the children of Israel,” might have been written by Moses ; but he cuts the knot, instead of untying it. » To mention only two examples. The common reading of 1 Cor. xvi. 2. la /ttmw rxiZxTw,(Greek) but the Codex Petavianus 3. has t«# xup.*Kio>(Greek) in the margin ; and in one of the manuscripts used by Beza, this marginal addition has been obtruded of the text See his note to this passage. Another instance Is 1 John ii. 27. where the genuine reading is xxxxxxx,(Greek) but Wetstein quotes two manuscripts in which *»ivp«(Greek) is written in the margin, and this marginal reading has found its way not only into the Codex Covelli 2. but into the Coptic and Ethiopic versions. * Dr. Graves’s Lectures, vol. 1. p. 346. * Bishop Marsh’s Authenticity of the Five Books of Moses vindicated, Sp. 15. 18. The texts above considered, which were excepted against by Spinoza, LeClerc (who subsequently wrote a Dissertation to refute his former objections), the late Dr. Geddes, and some opposers of revelation since his decease, are considered, discussed, and satisfactorily explained at great length by Huet, Dem. Evang. prop. iv. cap. H. Com. i. pp. 254—264, and by Dr. Graves in the appendix to his Lectures on the four last Books of the Pentateuch, vol. i. pp. 332—361. See also Carpiov. Introd. of Libros Biblicos, Vet. Test pp. 38-41. Moldenhawer, Introd. ad Libros Canonicos Vet. el Nov. Test. pp. 16, 17. Religionis Naturalis et Revelataj Principia, torn. ii. pp. 3—51.
TEXT CONTINUED column 2 p-38
narrative, together with the coincidence of the accounts there delivered, with the history of those times.
That an extraordinary person, called Jesus Christ, flourished in Judaea in the Augustan age, is a fact better supported and authenticated, than that there lived such men as Cyrus, Alexander, and Julius Caesar ; for although their histories are recorded by various ancient writers, yet the memorials of their conquests and empires have for the most part perished.
Babylon, Persepolis, and Ecbatana are no more ; and travelers have long disputed, but have not been able to ascertain, the precise site of ancient Nineveh, that ” exceeding great city of three days’ journey.”” (Jonah iii. 3.)
How few vestiges of Alexander’s victorious arms are at present to be seen in Asia Minor and India ! And equally few are the standing memorials in France and Britain, to evince that there was such a person as Julius Caesar, who subdued the one, and invaded the other.
Not so defective are the evidences concerning the existence of Jesus Christ.
That he lived in the reign of Tiberius emperor of Rome, and that he suffered death under Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator of Judea, are facts that are not only acknowledged by the Jews of every subsequent age, and by the testimonies of several heathen writers, but also by Christians of every age and country, who have commemorated, and still commemorate, the birth, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, and his spiritual kingdom, by their constant and universal profession of certain principles of religion, and by their equally constant and universal celebration of divine worship on the Lord’s day, or first day of the week, and likewise of the two ordinances of baptism and the Lord’s supper.
These religious doctrines and ordinances they profess to derive from a collection of writings, composed after the ascension of Jesus Christ, which they acknowledge to be divine, and to have been written by the first preachers of Christianity.
As all who have claimed to be the founders of any particular sect or religion have left some written records of their institutes, it is a natural supposition that the first preachers of the Christian faith should have left some writings containing the principles which it requires to be believed, and the moral precepts which it enjoins to be performed.
For although they were at first content with the oral publication of the actions and doctrines of their master ; yet they must have been apprehensive lest the purity of that first tradition should be altered after their decease by false teachers, or by those changes which are ordinarily effected in the course of time in whatever is transmitted orally. Besides, they would have to answer those who consulted them ; they would have to furnish Christians, who lived at a distance, with lessons and instructions.
Thus it became necessary that they should leave something in writing ; and, if the apostles did leave any writings, they must be the same which have been preserved to our time : for it is incredible that all their writings should have been lost, and succeeded by supposititious pieces, and that the whole of the Christian faith should have for its foundation only forged or spurious writings.
Further, that the first Christians did receive some written, as well as some oral instruction, is a fact supported by the unanimous testimony of all the Christian churches, which, in every age since their establishment, have professed to read and to venerate certain books as the productions of the apostles, and as being the foundation of their faith.
Now every thing which we know concerning the belief, worship, manners, and discipline of the first Christians, corresponds exactly with the contents of the books of the New Testament, which are now extant, and which are therefore most certainly the primitive instructions which they received.
The collection of these books or writings is generally known by the appellation of Hkainhaiaohkh(sp),(Greek) the New Covenant, or New Testament; a title, which, though neither given by divine command, nor applied to these writings by the apostles, was adopted in a very early age.
6 Although the precise time of its introduction is not known, yet
FOOTNOTE col. 2 p-38
Dr. Howard’s Introduction to the New Testament, vol. i. pp. 1 — 6. • Michaelie’s introduction to the New Testament, vol. i. p. I. Bishop Marsh, in a note, thinks it probable that this title was used so early as the second century, because the word testamentum was used in that sense by the Latin Christians before the expiration of that period, as appears from Tertullian. Adversus Marcionetn, lib. iv. c. 1. But the first instance in which the term x«**ii tt*innn actually occurs in the sense of” writings of the new covenant.” is in Origen’s treatise Hipi Apx*”, lib. iv. c. 1. (Op. loin. I. p. 156.)— Michaelis, vol. I. p. 343. See also RosenmUller’s Scholia in N. T. torn. i. p. i. ; Rumptei Commentatio Critica in Libros Nov! Testamenti, pp. 1—3. ; Leusden’s Phitologus Hebrajo-Greecus, p. I. ; and Prilii Introd. In Not. Test pp. 9 — 11.
PAGE 39 col. 1
it is justified by several passages in the Scriptures, and is, in particular, warranted by Saint Paul, who calls the doctrines, precepts, and promises of the Gospel dispensation Kam Autu,(Greek) the New Covenant, in opposition to those of the Mosaic Dispensation, which he terms Aixu,(Greek) the Old Covenant. 2 This appellation, in process of time, was by a metonymy transferred to the collection of apostolical and evangelical writings.
The title, ” New Covenant,” then, signifies the book which contains the terms of the New Covenant, upon which God is pleased to offer salvation to man kind, through the mediation of Jesus Christ.
But according to the meaning of the primitive church, which bestowed this title, it is not altogether improperly rendered New Testament as being that in which the Christian’s inheritance is sealed to him as a son and heir of God, and in which the death of Christ as a testator is related at large, and applied to our benefit.
As this title implies that in the Gospel unspeakable gifts are given or bequeathed to us, antecedent to all conditions required of us, the title of Testament may be retained, although that of Covenant would be more correct and proper.
ii. The writings, thus collectively termed the New Testament, consist of twenty-seven books, composed on various occasions, and at different times and places, by eight different authors, all of whom were contemporary with Jesus Christ, viz. the four Gospels, which bear the names of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the Acts of the Apostles, the fourteen Epistles which bear the name of Paul, and which are addressed to the Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, to Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and to the Hebrews, the seven Catholic Epistles (as they are called) of James, Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Jude, and the Book of the Revelation, which like wise bears the name of John.
These writings contain the history of Jesus Christ, the first propagation of his religion, together with the principles of Christianity, and various precepts or rules of life.
The Gospels were written at various periods, and published for very different classes of believers ; while the Epistles were addressed, as occasion required, to those various Christian communities, which, by the success full labors of the apostles, had been spread over the greatest part of the then known world, and also to a few private individuals.
Different churches received different books according to their situation and circumstances. Their canons were gradually enlarged ; and at no very great distance of time from the age of the apostles, with a view to secure to future ages a divine and perpetual standard of faith and practice, these writings were collected together into one volume under the title of the ” New Testament,” or the ” Canon of the New Testament.”
Neither the names of the persons that were concerned in making this collection, nor the exact time when it was undertaken, can at present be ascertained with any degree of certainty : nor is it at all necessary that we should be precisely informed concerning either of these particulars.
It is sufficient for us to know that the principal parts of the New Testament were collected before the death of the Apostle John, or at least not long after that event.1 Modern advocates of infidelity, with their accustomed disregard of truth, have asserted that the Scriptures of the New Testament were never accounted canonical until the meeting of the council of Laodicea, a. d. 304. The simple fact is, that the canons of this council are the earliest extant, which give a formal catalogue of the books of the New Testament.
FOOTNOTE: col. 1 p-39
• Matt, xivi. 28. Gal. iii. 17. Heb. viii. 8. Is. IS— 20. » 2 dir. Il>. 6. 14. ■ The learned professor Jablonski has an elegant dissertation on the word AIA’^HKH, which, he contends, ought to be translated Testament, 1. From the usage of the Greek language ; 2. From the nature of the design and will of God, which is called AlAuHKH ; 3. From various passages of the New Opuscula, torn. ii. pp. 39S–423. Lug. Bat. 1804. * Of all the various opinions that have been maintained concerning the who first collected the canon of the New Testament, the most general seems to be, that the several books were originally collected by St. John ; — an opinion for which the testimony of Euseuius (Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. c.
TEXT col. 2 p-39
There is, indeed, every reason to believe that the bishops who were present at Laodicea did not mean to settle the canon, but simply to mention those books which were to be publicly read. 4 Another reason why the canonical books were not mentioned before the council of Laodicea, is presented in the persecutions to which the professors of Christianity were constantly exposed, and in the want of a national establishment of Christianity for several centuries, which prevented any general councils of Christians for the purpose of settling their canon of Scripture.
6 But, though the number of the books thus received as sacred and canonical was not in the first instance determined by the authority of councils, we are not left in uncertainty concerning their genuineness and authenticity, for which we have infinitely more decisive and satisfactory evidence than we have for the productions of any ancient classic authors, concerning whose genuineness and authenticity no doubt was ever entertained.
iii. We receive the books of the New Testament, as the genuine works of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul, James, Peter, and Jude, for the same reason that we receive the writings of Xenophon, of Polybius, of Caesar, Tacitvjs, and Quintus Curtius ; namely, because we have the uninterrupted testimony of ages to their genuineness, and we have no reason to suspect imposition.
This argument, Michaelis remarks, is much stronger when applied to the books of the New Testament than when applied to any other writings ; for they were addressed to large societies in widely distant parts of the world, in whose presence they were often read, and were acknowledged by them to be the writings of the apostles.
Whereas the most eminent profane writings, that are still extant, were addressed only to individuals, or to no persons at all : and we have no authority to affirm that they were read in public ; on the contrary, we know that a liberal education was uncommon, books were scarce, and the knowledge of them was confined to a few individuals in every nation.
The New Testament was read over three quarters of the world, while profane writers were limited to one nation or to one country. An uninterrupted succession of writers, from the apostolic ages to the present time (many of whom were men of distinguished learning and acuteness), either quote the Sacred Writings, or make allusion to them : and these quotations and allusions, as will be shown in a subsequent page, are made not only by friends, but also by enemies.
This cannot be asserted of the best classic authors : and as translations of the New Testament were made in the second century, which in the course of one or two centuries more were greatly multiplied, it became absolutely impossible to forge new writings, or to corrupt the sacred text, unless we suppose that men of different nations, sentiments, and languages, and often exceedingly hostile to each other, should all agree in one forgery.
This argument is so strong, that, if we deny the authenticity of the New Testament, we may with a thousand times greater propriety reject all the other writings in the world ; we may even throw aside human testimony.
But this subject is of the greatest importance (for the arguments that prove the authenticity of the New Testament also prove the truth of the Christian religion), we shall consider it more at length ; and having first shown that the books which compose the canon of the New Testament are not spurious, we shall briefly consider the positive evidence for their authenticity. A genuine book, as already remarked, is one written by the person whose name it bears as its author : the opposite to genuine is spurious, supposititious, or, as some critics term it, pseudepigraphial, that which is clandestinely put in the place of another.
The reasons which may induce a critic to suspect a work to be spurious are stated by Michaelis to be the following : 1. When doubts have been entertained from its appearance in the world, whether it proceeded from the author to whom it is ascribed ; — 2. When the immediate friends of the pretended author, who were able to decide upon the subject, have denied it to be his production ; — 3. When a long series of years has elapsed after his death, in which the book was unknown, and in which it must unavoidably have been mentioned and quoted, had it really existed ; — 4. When the style is different from that of his other writings, or, in case no other remain, different from that which might reasonably be expected ; — 5. When events are recorded which happened later
FOOTNOTES: col. 2 p-39
■ Lardner’s Works, vol. iii. p. 448. 4to. edit. • Bp. Tomline’s Elements of Christian Theology, vol. 1. p. 270. the Canon, vol. i. p. 41. Oxford, 1798. ‘ Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. xvii. p. 136. 3d edit.
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than the time of the pretended author ; — 6. When opinions are advanced which contradict those he is known to maintain in his other writings.
Though this latter argument alone leads to no positive conclusion, since every man is liable to change his opinion, or, through forgetfulness, to vary in the circumstances of the same relation, of which Josephus, in his Antiquities and War of the Jews, affords a striking ex ample.
Now, of all these various grounds for denying a work to be genuine, not one can be applied with justice to the New Testament..
For, in the first place, it cannot be shown that anyone doubted of its authenticity in the period in which it first appeared ; —
Secondly, no ancient accounts are on record, whence we may conclude it to be spurious ; —
Thirdly, no considerable period of time elapsed after the death of the apostles, in which the New Testament was unknown ; but, on the contrary, it is mentioned by their very contemporaries, and the accounts of it in the second century are still more numerous ; —
Fourthly, no argument can be brought in its disfavor from the nature of the style, it being exactly such as might be expected from the apostles, not Attic, but Jewish Greek ; —
Fifthly, no facts are recorded, which happened after their death ; —
Lastly, no doctrines are maintained, which contradict the known tenets of the authors, since, besides the New Testament, no writings of the apostles are in existence. But, to the honour of the New Testament be it spoken, it contains numerous contradictions to the tenets and doctrines of the fathers of the second and third centuries; whose mo reality is different from that of the Gospel, which recommends fortitude and submission to unavoidable evils, but not that enthusiastic ardor for martyrdom, for which those centuries are distinguished : the New Testament also alludes to ceremonies which in the following ages were disused or unknown : all which circumstances infallibly demonstrate that it is not a production of either of those centuries.1 footnote
iv. From the preceding considerations it is evident, that there is not the smallest reason to doubt that these books are as certainly genuine as the most indisputable works of the Greeks and Romans.
But that the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament do not rest on merely negative proof, we have evidence the most direct and positive which can be desired, and this evidence may be arranged under the following heads, namely :
1. The Impossibility of a Forgery, arising from the nature of the thing itself;
2. External or Historical Evidence, arising from the ancient Christian, Jewish, and Heathen testimonies in its favor, and also from the ancient versions of the New Testament, which were made into various languages in the very first ages of the church, and which versions are still extant ; — and, 3. Internal Evidence, arising from the character of the writers of the New Testament, from its language and style, from the circumstantiality of the narrative, and from the undesigned coincidences of the accounts delivered in the New Testament with the history of those times.
I. The impossibility of a forgery, arising from the nature of the thing itself, is evident. It is impossible to establish forged writings as authentic in any place where there are persons strongly inclined and well qualified to detect the fraud.
2 Now the Jews were the most violent enemies of Christianity : they put its founder to death ; they persecuted his disciples with implacable fury ; and they were anxious to stifle the new religion in its birth. If the writings of the New Testament had been forged, would not the Jews have detected the imposture ? Is there a single instance on record where a few individuals have imposed a history upon the world against the testimony of a whole nation?
Would the inhabitants of Palestine have received the gospels, if they had not had sufficient evidence that Jesus Christ really appeared among them, and performed the miracles ascribed to him?
Or would the churches at Rome or at Corinth have acknowledged the epistles addressed to them as the genuine works of St. Paul, if he had never preached among them ? Or, supposing any imposter to have attempted the invention and distribution of writings under his name, or the names of the other apostles, is it possible that they could have been received without contradiction in all the Christian communities
FOOTNOTES: column 1 p-40
« Michaelis’s Introduction, vol. i. pp. SB — 30. • Witness (to mention no other instances) the attempt unsuccessfully made a few years since by Mr. Ireland, junior, in his celebrated Shakespearian Manuscripts, the fabrication of which was detected by Mr. Mai one, in his masterly ” Inquiry into the Authenticity of the miscellaneous Papers anil legal Instruments published December 24, 1795, and attributed to Shak- upcare, Queen Elizabeth, and Henry Earl of Southampton.” Svo. London, 1796.
TEXT: col. 2 p-40
of the three several quarters of the globe ” We might as well attempt to prove that the history of the reformation is the invention of historians, and that no revolution happened in Great Britain during the seventeenth century, or in France during the eighteenth century, and the first fifteen years of the nineteenth century.
3 Indeed, from the marks of integrity, simplicity, and fidelity, which every where pervade the writings of the apostles, we may be certain that they would not have attempted a forgery ; and if they had made the attempt in the apostolic age, when the things are said to have happened, every person must have been sensible of the forgery.
As the volume called the New Testament consists of several pieces, which are ascribed to eight persons, we cannot suppose it to have been an imposture ; for if they had written in concert, they would not differ (as in a subsequent page we shall see that they do) in slight matters ; and if one man wrote the whole, there would not be such a diversity as we see in the style of the different pieces.
If the apostles were all honest, they were incapable of a forgery ; and if they were all knaves, they were unlikely to labor to render men virtuous. If some of them were honest, and the rest cheats, the latter could not have deceived the former in respect to matters of fact ; nor is it probable that impostors would have attempted a forgery which would have exposed them to many inconveniences.
How parts of the Scripture been fabricated in the second or third century by obscure persons, their forgeries would have been rejected by the intelligent and respectable; and if pious and learned men had forged certain passages, their frauds, however well in tended, would have been discovered by the captious and insignificant, who are ever prone to criticize their or abilities.
If the teachers of Christianity in one forged certain passages of Scripture, the copies in the hands of laymen would discover such forgery ; nor would it have been possible to obtain credit for such a forgery in other nations.
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, having understood Greek and Hebrew, their gospels, which were written in the former language, contain many Hebrew idioms and words.
Hence we may be certain that the gospels were not forged by those early Christian writers, or fathers (as they are called), who were strangers to Hebrew, since in such case they would not abound with Hebrew words; nor by Justin Martyr, Origen, or Epiphanius, since the style of the Greek writings of these fathers differs from that of the gospels,.
Lastly, as the New Testament is not calculated to advance the private interest of priests or rulers, it could not be forged by the clergy or by princes ; and as its teachers suffered in propagating it, and as it was not the established religion of any nation for three hundred years, it is perfectly absurd to suppose it the offspring of priestcraft, or mere political contrivance.
For three hundred years after Christ, no man had anything to dread from exposing a forgery in the books of the New Testament ; because, during that time, the Christians had not the power of punishing informers.
1 It was therefore morally impossible, from the very nature of the thing, that those books could be forged. Satisfactory as the preceding argument for the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament, arising from the impossibility of a forgery, unquestionably is,
2. The direct and positive testimony arising from the external or historical evidence is by no means inferior in decisiveness or importance. This evidence is furnished by the testimony of ancient writers, who have quoted or alluded to the books of the New Testament, and also by ancient versions of the New Testament, in various languages, which are still extant.
The books of the ACTS Testament are quoted or alluded to by a series of Christian writers, as well as by adversaries of the Christian faith, who may be traced back in regular succession from the present time to the apostolic age.*
This sort of evidence. Dr. Palcy has remarked, is of all others the most unquestionable, the least liable to any practices of fraud, and is not diminished by the lapse of ages.
Bishop Burnet, in the History of his own Times, inserts various extracts from Lord Clarendon’s History. One such insertion is a proof that Lord Clarendon’s History was ex-….
FOOTNOTES: col. 2 p-40
» Michaelis, vol. i. p. 31. Ency. Brit, vol. xvii. p. 135. • Dr. Ryan’s Evidences of the Mosaic and Christian Codes, pp. 150, 151. 8vo. Dublin, 1795. The argument above briefly stated is urged at length with much force and accuracy by Abbadie, in his Traite de Ul Veiile de l.i Religion Chretienne, from. ii. pp. 39 — 45. Amsterdam — 1719′ In the ﬁrst edition off this work, the historical evidence for the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament was exhibited chronologically from the apostolic age down to the fourth century; but as the chronological series of that evidence has been cavilled at by the opponents of Christianity, can now be traced backwards to the fourth century to the apostolic age, to the weightier and satisfactory reasons (which do not admit of abridgment) assigned by Bishop Marsh, in his “ Course of Lectures on D part v. pp. 1—l9.
extant at the time when Bishop Burnet wrote, that it had been read by Bishop Burnet that it was received by Bishop Burnet as the work of Lord. Claredon and also regarded by him as an authentic account of the transactions which it relates; and it will be a proof of these points a thousand years hence, or as long as the books exist.
1 This simple instance may serve to point out to a reader, who is little accustomed to such researches, the nature and value of the argument.
In examining the quotations from the New Testament, which are to be found in the writing of the ﬁrst ecclesiastical writers, the learned Professor Hug (2) has laid down the following principles, the consideration of which will be sufficient to solve nearly all the objections which have been made against their citations :—
l. The ancient Christian writers cite the Old Testament with greater exactness than the New Testament;_because the former, being less generally known, required positive quotations, rather than vague allusions, and perhaps also evinced more erudition in the person who appealed to its testimony.
2. In passages taken from the Historical Writers of the Old or New Testament we seldom meet with the identical words of the author cited : but this does not prevent allusions to circumstances, or to the sense, in very many instances, from rendering evident both the origin of the passage and the design of the author.
3. Quotations from the didactic writings of the Old Testament are generally very exact, and accompanied with the name of the author quoted. In this case his name is, indeed, generally necessary.
4. In like manner, when quotations are made from the epistles of the New Testament, the name of the author cited is general] given, especially when the passage is not literally state.
5. The fathers often amplify sentences of Scripture to which they allude: in which case they disregard the words, in order to develops the ideas of the sacred writers.
6. When lrenaeus, and the fathers who followed him, relate the actions or discourses of Jesus Christ, they almost always appeal to Him, and not to the evangelists whom they copy- as Lord says -The Lord hath done it- are their expressions, even in those instances, where the conformity of their writings with our copies of the original authors is not sufficiently striking to exclude all uncertainty respecting the source whence they drew the facts or sayings related by them.
(This remark is particularly worthy of attention, because, of all the ancient fathers, Irenaeus- is he who has rendered the strongest and most express testimony to the authenticity of our four gospels, and who has consequently drawn from them the facts and discourses which he as related in his writings.)
7. Lastly, it must on no account be forgotten, that the quotations of the fathers are not to be compared with our printed editions, or our textus receptus, but with the text of the: church, and of the age in which they lived ; which text was sometimes purer, though most frequently less correct than ours, and always exhibits diversities, in themselves in deed of little importance, but which nevertheless would be sufficient sometimes to conceal the phrase cited from readers who should not remember that circumstance.
For the reason above stated, we commence the series of testimonies to the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament, which are furnished by the quotations of ancient Christian writers, with the fathers of the fourth century, because from that century downwards, the works of CHRISTIAN WRITERS are so full of references to the New Testament, that it becomes unnecessary to adduce their testimonies, especially as they would only prove that the books of Scripture never lost their character or authority with the Christian church.
The witnesses to the genuineness of the books of the New Testament, in this century, are very numerous; but, as it would extend this chapter to too great a length, were we to detail them all, it may suffice to remark, that we have not fewer than TEN distinct catalogues of these books. Six agree exactly with our present canon; namely, the lists of Athanasius (A. 11.315), Epiphanius
FOOTNOTE p-41, col 1
Paleys; Evidences, vol. 1. p. l73.
Cellerier Essai d’une introduction Critique au Nouveau Testament, pp. 17- 19. Hug’s Introduction to the Writings of the New Testament, by Dr. Wail. vol. i. pp 40-44. ‘ The testimonies of Irenaeus is given in p. 43. infra. ‘ The tcstimony of Athanasius will be found at full length in ‘Dr. Lardner’s edit ability of the Gospel History, part ii. Works, vol. iv. pp. 280-294. of the 8vo. edition of 1799, or vol. ii. pp. 388-405. of the 4th. edition. The testimonies adduced in Lardner’s, may likewise be seen on a smaller scale in Professor Lees’s valuable work on “The Authenticity, uncorrupted Pre- cont. below
FOOTNOTE p-41, col 2 Preservation, and Credibility of the New Testament,” translated by Mr. King in, 8vo. London, 1804; and especially in C. F. Schmidius’s “Historia Antiqua et Vindicatio Canonia Sacri Veterls Novique Testumenti.” 8vo. Vol., Lipaiae 1775.
Dr. Lardner, 8vol. iv. pp. 311-319. ; 4to. vol. ii. pp. 4l6—-420.
lbid. 8vo. vol. v. pp. 1-74.; 4 to vol. ii. pp 531-672.
lbid. 8vo. vol. v. pp. 75-78.; 4 to vol. ii. pp. 572-574.
Ibid. 8vo. vol. v. pp. 81-123. ; 4 to vol. ii. pp. 576-699.
lbid. 8vo. vol. v. pp. 79, 80. ; 4 to vol. ii. pp. 574-576.
Ibid 8vo. vnl iv. pp. 299-313.; 410. vol. ii. pp. 409-411.
Continue p41. col 2
(A. D. 392),” Ruﬁnus (K.ri.390.), Augustine, Bishop of. Hippo in Africa (A. D. 394.)., and of the forty four bishops assembled in the third council of Carthage at which Augustine was present, A. D, 397).
Of the other four catalogues, those of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem (A. D. 340), of the bishops at the council 0 Laodicea (A. D. 364),” and of Gregory of Nazianzum, Bishop of Constantinople (A. D. 375),” are the same with our canon, excepting that the Revelation is omitted ; and Philaster or Philastrius, Bishop of Brixia or Brescia (A. D. 380), in his list, omits the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the Revelation, though he acknowledged as both these books in other parts of his works.
Of these various catalogues, that of JEROME is the most remarkable. He was born about the middle of the fourth century, and was ordained presbyter by Paulinus, at Antioch, in the year 378, about which time he is placed by Bp. Marsh, Dr. Cave, and others, though Dr. Ladner (whose date we have followed places him about the year 392, when he wrote his celebrated book of illustrious men.
It is well known that Jerome was the most learned of the Latin fathers; and he was peculiarly qualiﬁed, not only by his profound erudition, but by his extensive researches, his various travels, and his long‘ residence in Palestine, to investigate the authenticity of several books which compose New Testament.
Of these books he has given a catalogue in his epistle to Paulinus, on the study of the Holy Scriptures. He begins his catalogue (which is nearly at the close of the epistle with the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. The Acts of the Apostles he mentions as another work of St. Luke, whose praise is in the Gospel.
He says that St. Paul wrote epistles to seven churches : the seven churches are such as we ﬁnd in the titles of the Epistles of St. Paul contained in our resent copies of the New Testament.
Of the Epistle to the Hebrews he observes, that most persons (namely, in the Latin church) did not consider it as an epistle of St. Paul: but we shall presently see that his own opinion was different. He further states, that St. Paul wrote to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.
The seven catholic (catholic meaning universal) epistles he ascribes to James, Peter, John, and Jude, and expressly says that they were apostles. And he concludes his catalogue with the remark that the Revelation of John has as many mysteries as words.
This catalogue accords with the books which we receive at present, with the exception of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The rejection of this epistle is a act which Jerome has not at tried to conceal; and therefore, as he conﬁdently speaks of all the other books of the New Testament, his testimony is so much the more in their favour.
As we are now concerned with a statement of facts, it would be foreign to our present purpose to inquire into the causes which induced the Latin church to reject the Epistle to the Hebrews. But what ever those causes may have been, they did not warrant the rejection of it, in the estimation of Jerome himself.
For in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, or, as it is frequently called, his Treatise of Illustrious Men, and in the article relating to St. Paul, Jerome expressly asserts that St. Paul wrote the epistle to the Hebrews. And in his Epistle to Dardanus,” alluding to the then prevalent custom in the Latin church to reject the Epistle to the Hebrews, he adds, ‘but we receive it ;’ and he assigns this powerful reason, which it is necessary to give in his own words, ‘ nequaquam hujus temporis consueludmem, sed veterum scri torum auda rilalem sequentes.’—To his catalogue of the books of the New Testament may be added his revision of the Latin version, which revision contained the same books as we have at present. (1)
In this revision Jerome was employed by Damasus, then Bishop of Rome, to collate many ancient Greek copies of the New Testament, and by them to correct the Latin version then in use, wherever they appeared to.
page 42. col.1
disagree materially with the true originals. This task he tells us he performed in the four gospels with great care in the year 384. and he made the same use in the Greek copies in his commentaries on St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Titus, and Philemon, and most probably also in his commentaries on the other parts of the New Testament. _
The next distinguished writer anterior to Jerome was Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, who ﬂourished in the the year 315, a man of extraordinary learning, diligence and judgement, and singularly studious in the Scriptures.
He received the books of the New Testament nearly as we have them, and in his Various writings has produce quotations from all, or nearly all of them.
His chief work is his Ecclesiastical History, in which he records the history of Christianity from its commencement to his own time; and having diligently read the works of Christian antiquity, for the express purpose of ascertaining what writings had been received as to be genuine productions of the apostles and evangelists, in the third, fourth, and twenty-fourth chapters of his third book, he has particularly treated on the various books of the New Testament; and in the twenty-fifth chapter he has delivered, not his own private opinion, but the opinion of the church, (latin…II.I.Mﬂ’|1I”r!IJ1 mtpzlmr,) the sum of what he had found in the writings of the primitive Christians.
As the result of his inquiries, he reduces the books of the New Testament into the three following classes; viz.
l. (Greek O,ua;.ayw_/401:4 Fpaoau (¢ru,uoAc)n,u|rtu‘ OI‘ unveil: mu amrcr;) that is, writings which were universally received as the genuine works of the persons whose names the bear.
In this class Eusebius reckons,
l. The four Gospels;
2. The Acts of the A ostles;
3. The Epistles of Paul;
4. The ﬁrst Epistle of John;
5. The ﬁrst Epistle of Peter.
The Revelation of John might also perhaps be placed in this class, because some think its authenticity incontrovertible, yet the minority leave the matter undetermined.
II. (Greek Amhqtpwﬂ rpiqﬂi) that is, writings on whose authenticity the ancients were not unanimous. According to Eusebius, even these have the majority of voices among the ancients in their favor.
He expressly calls them (Greek, ymnuuv o‘/am we TGAAZIE) writings acknowledged by most to be genuine, and (Greek mom. nu;-m ‘rmV ur.x.Mrms-mm -yqvm-n:_uuzc) received by the majority.
A few doubted of their authenticity; and therefore Eusebius ranks them under the class of contested books. In this class he enumerates, of the writings of the New Testament,
I. The Epistle of James; 2. The,Epistle of Jude; 3. The second Epistle of Peter; 4. The second and third Epistles of John. The Revelation of John, he adds, is also by some placed in this class.
III. (Greek, N631! I‘ 1¢=u;) that is, writings confessedly spurious.
Among these he enumerates the acts of Paul; the Shepard of Hermas; the Revelation of Peter; the Epistle of Barnibus; the Doctrines of the Apostles: and the Gospel according to the Hebrews.
Besides these, Eusebius mentions certain books which may constitute a fourth class (for the twenty-ﬁfth chapter of the third book of his Ecclesiastical History is not remark ably perspicuous) ; viz.
IV. (Grek, A’I”iﬂ’b mu lw-0’1») (absurd and impious 😉 that is, writings which had been universally rejected as evidently spurious. In this class he includes the Gospel of Peter, of Thomas, and of Matthias; the Acts of Andrew, of John, and of other apostles.
These writings, says he, contain evident errors, are written in a style entirely different from that of the apostles, and have not thought worthy of being mentioned by any one of the ancients.
2 A few years before the time of Eusebius, or about the year 300, Arnobius, a teacher of rhetoric at Sicca in Africa, and Lactantius his pupil, composed, among other works, elaborate vindications of the Christian religion, which prove their acquaintance with the writings of the New Testament, although they did not cite them by name, because they addressed their works to the Gentiles.
Lactantius, indeed, assigns this very reason for his reserve; notwithstanding which Dr. Lardner remarks, “ He seems to show that the Christians of that time were so habituated to the language of Scripture, that it was not easy for them to avoid the use of it, whenever they discoursed upon things of a religious nature.
Footnote p. 42 col.1
1 For, in early times, some believed that this work was not composed by John the Apostle, but by a presbyter of the same name, by some other person.
2 Lardner, 8vo. vol. iv. page 200-275, 4to. vol.11. pp.355-395.
3 Lardner, 8vo. vol. iv. page 1-21, 4to. vol.11. pp.214-257.
Ibid. 8vo. vol. iv. p. 24-81. 4to. vol.11. pp.257-292.
p. 42 col. 2
During the next preceding forty years, the imperfect mains of numerous writers(5) are still extant, in which either cite the Historical Scriptures of the New Testament or speak of them in terms of profound respect ; but Thtimony of Victorius Bishop of Pettaw in Germany particularly worthy of notice, on account of the remote his situation from that of Origen and Cyprian, who Africans. Victorinus wrote commentaries on difierences of the Old Testament, an exposition of some passages of Matthew’s Gospel, a commentary on the Apocalypse various controversial treatises against the heretics of in which we have valuable and most explicit testimony almost every book of the New Testament.(6)
Of all the fathers who flourished in the third century, learned and laborious unquestionably was ORIGEN, ‘ born in Egypt, A. D. 184 or 185, and died about they It is said of him, that he did not so much recommend Christianity by what he preached or wrote, as by the general of his life.
So great, indeed, was the estimation he was held, even among the heathen philosophers, dedicated their writings to him, and submitted them révisal. (7) Of the critical labors of Origen upon the scriptures, we have spoken at considerable length in a sub part of this work ;(8) but, besides these, which in the form a decisive testimony to the authenticity of the series he wrote a three-fold exposition of all the books of the future, viz. scholia or short notes, tomes or extensive commentaries, in which he employed all his learning, sacred, and profane, and a variety of homilies for the people.
Although a small portion only of his works come down to us, yet in them he uniformly bears to the authenticity of the New Testament, as we notice ; and he is the first writer who has given us a perfect catlogue of those books which Christians unanimously least the greater part of them have considered as the and divinely inspired writings of the apostles.(9) GREGORY Bishop of Neo-Ca-sarea,(10) and Dionysius of Alexandria,(11)were pupils of Origen ; so that their testimonies to the New Testament, which are very numerous in fact but repetitions of his. In the writings of Caius Bishop of Carthage, who flourished a few years after and suffered martyrdom, A. D. 258, we have most quotations from almost all the books of the New Testament.
Further, during the first thirty years of the thirty, there are extant fragments of several writers, in all there is some reference to the books of the New Testament by Cauis, sunamed Romanus, who was a presbyter in the church of Rome,(13) quotes all the epistles of Paul as his genuine productions, except the Epistle to Hebrews, which he has omitted to enumerate among (13) Hippolytus Portunesis also has several references of the books of the New Testament.
(14) Ammonis composed a Harmony the Four Gospels,(15) and Julus Canus endeavoured to remove the apparent contradiction of the genealogy of Jesus Christ as delivered by the evidence Matthew and Luke.(16)
From the third century we now ascend to the * which flourished TERTULLIAN, a presbyter of the Old Carthage, who was born in the year 160, and died a year 220. He became a Montanist about the year 2 Christian writers have commonly distinguished what he wrote before that period, and what he p afterwards. His testimony, however, to the auth the canonical Scriptures, both before and after he e the tenets of Montanus, is exactly the same. He recognizes the four Gospels, as written by the evidence
Footnote p42, col2.
(5)As Novatiifl, Rome, A. D. 251 ; Dionysitis, Rome, A. D. 239 ; C< A.D. 270 ; Amituliiis, Laodicea, A. D. 270 ; Thcognoslus, A.D. 282 : 1 Lycia, A. D. 290 ; and Phileas Bishop of Thinuis in Egypt, A. D. 296. of these writers, and extracts from their testimonies to the lament, are collected and given at length by Dr. Lardner. (Woi 8vo. or voL ii. 4to.)
(6) Lardner, Svo. vol. iii. 286-303.; 4to. vol. ii. pp. 88-98
(7) Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 19.
(8) See On Scrip. Crit. Part I. Chap. III. Sect. iii. 4 2 1. 4. infra.
(9) Lardner, Svo. vol.ii. pp. 442-514; 4to. vol. i. 519-575.
(10) lbid. Svo. vol. iii pp. ‘25-57.; 4to. vol. i. p.591-608.
(11) Lardner, Svo. vol lll. pp. 57-132 ;4to. vo.I pp. 609–650.
(12) Ibid. Svo. vol. iii. pp. 133-183; 4t0. vol. ii. pp. 3-30
(13) Euscbius, Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 20. Lardner, Svo. vol. ii. pp. 4to. vol. i. pp. 481 — 181. A critical edition of the Fragment of Ci ito. voi. i. pp. 4D1 — m. A critical edition 01 me r raiment ol ui found in Dr. Routh’s Reliquie Sacre, vol. ii. pp. 1—32. See also I fourth volume, pp. 1 — 37. A translation of the same fragment w ;T vol. i. pp. 159— 161. of Sermons on the Evidences of Christian ev. Daniel Wilson, M. A. (now D. D. and Bishop of Calcutta.)
(14) Lardner, 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 397—413. ; 4to. vol. I. pp. 495—603.
(15) Ibid.Svo. vol. ii. pp.413 — 430.; Ito. vol. i. pp. 503—513.
(16) Eisebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. i. c. 7. Lardner, Svo. voi II. pp. 431- vol. i. pp. 613-618.
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Saint Charles Missouri U.S.
Norman Oetker Protestant Christian Missionary served in: US., Thailand, Reynosa Mexico, and now in Saint Charles Missouri